Jumat, 04 Maret 2011

Arabica Producing in Papua

New Guinea is the second largest island in the world. The Indonesian half of the island was formerly called “Irian Jaya”. Today, it is known as Papua, and it is divided into two provinces – Papua and West Papua. The eastern half of New Guinea is the independent country of Papua New Guinea. 
There are two main coffee growing areas in Papua The first is the Baliem Valley, in the central highlands of the Jayawijaya region, surrounding the town of Wamena.  The second is the Kamu Valley in the Nabire Region, at the eastern edge of the central highlands, surrounding the town of Moanemani. Both areas lie at altitudes between 1,400 and 2000 meters, creating ideal conditions for Arabica production.
Together, these areas currently produce about 230 tons of coffee per year. This is set to rise, as new companies are setting up buying and processing operations. These companies are assisting farmers to obtain organic and fair trade certification, which will significantly improve incomes. The area is extremely remote, with most coffee growing areas inaccessible by road and nearly untouched by the modern world.
All coffee is shade grown, in a stunning natural environment that is home to the Bird of Paradise and uncounted other species. The main tree species found in coffee production areas are Kaliandara, Erytrhina and Abizia. The tropical forests of Papua are among the most bio-diverse habitats on earth.  
Farmer in Papua using a semi washed process. After pulping, the coffee is fermented for 8 to 10 hours. Then the mucilage is washed away and the beans are then dried to 12% moisture or wet hulled and dried as green Bean. Since modern technology slowly emerges, most of this Coffee is processed entirely by hand. Chemical fertilizer pesticide and herbicide are unknown in this origin, which makes this coffee both rare and valuable.  For more information, visit www.papuanspecialtycoffees.com
SCAI exporter and contact
Production areaName and cup profileCertificationCrop cycle
Baliem Arabica cooperative 
Baliem Valley
 Heavy body with low acidity.  Chocolate with tobacco notes.
OrganicMay to September 


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Kamis, 03 Februari 2011

Top 10 Coffee Shops in Washington, DC

Looking for a great cup of coffee? Coffee shops seem to be popping up on every corner around Washington, DC. If you are looking for a unique place to enjoy your favorite java, there are several independently owned coffee houses in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Check out these coffee shops and enjoy a great cup of coffee, tea and bakery items. Internet access and live entertainment is available at many of these local cafes.

Chinatown Coffee Company

475 H Street, NW Washington, DC (202) 559-7656.
Washington's newest coffee house focuses on quality coffee and offers a variety of pastries. The company also hosts tastings and discussions with coffee experts.

Ebenezers Coffeehouse

201 F St. NE Washington, DC (202) 558-6900

The National Community Church owns this coffee shop on Capitol Hill and donates all of the proceeds to benefit community outreach projects. Menu items include coffee and a variety of hot drinks, pastries, bagels, and other bakery items. Ebenezers features live music, dance lessons and poetry nights. The lower level is available to rent for private events

Java Green Café

1020 19th St. NW, Washington, DC (202) 775-8899.

Java Green Café offers a variety of coffee and expresso drinks as well as salads, panini sandwiches, rice bowls and noodle dishes.

M.E. Swing Co.

17th and G Streets NW, Washington, DC. (800) 485-4019

Located in the heart of Washington, DC, this local coffee shop dates back to 1916. They focus on producing the freshest coffee by hand-craft roasting in small batches.

Mayorga Coffee

Locations in Silver Spring, Rockville, and National, Dulles, BWI and Pittsburgh airports.

Mayorga Coffee Roasters is a specialty coffee roaster, wholesaler, and retailer. Mayorga coffee is also available at markets and coffeeshops across the country and online.

Mocha Hut Coffeehouse

4706 14th St. NW Washington, DC (202) 829-6200
1301 U St. NW Washington, DC (202) 667-0616

 The neighborhood coffeehouse provides a cozy setting to enjoy gourmet coffees from around the world and a wide selection of teas, fresh juices, pastries, full breakfast selections, sandwiches and salads. Live music is performed regularly at the U Street location.

Quartermaine Coffee Roasters

Roasting Plant - 4972 Wyaconda Rd. Rockville, MD (301) 230-4600
Coffee shop - 4817 Bethesda Ave. Bethesda, MD (301) 718-2853

The regional specialty coffee roaster sells its coffee at its local shops, in specialty gourmet food stores and online.

Sparky's Espresso Café

1720 14th Street, NW Washington, DC (202) 332-9334

This local hangout offers a wide selection of coffee, tea, smoothies, pastries, sandwiches and salads. This is a casual venue for meetings, book signings, poetry readings, and live musical performances.

St. Elmo's Coffee Pub

2300 Mount Vernon Ave. Alexandria, VA (703) 739-9268

This coffee shop with a pub-like atmosphere serves coffee and espresso drinks, teas, baked goods, and sandwiches and salads made daily from the nearby Bread & Chocolate and Caboose Café. Live music is featured Wednesday through Saturday evenings. Free movies are offered every other Tuesday.

Tryst Coffeehouse

2459 18th St. NW Washington, DC (202) 232-5500

Located in the heart of Adams Morgan, this coffee shop is a local favorite, attracting a wide range of patrons with its casual and comfortable atmosphere and extensive hours (open 6:30 a.m. to 2 a.m. weeknights and 3 a.m on weekends). The menu includes espresso drinks, French pastries, rustic breads, gourmet sandwiches, and international beers, wines, and liqueurs.

Kamis, 13 Januari 2011

Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee

Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee or Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee is a classification of coffee grown in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. The best lots of Blue Mountain coffee are noted for their mild flavour and lack of bitterness. Over the last several decades, this coffee has developed a reputation that has made it one of the most expensive and sought-after coffees in the world; over 80% of all Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee is exported to Japan.In addition to its use for brewed coffee, the beans are the flavor base of Tia Maria coffee liqueur.
Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee is a globally protected certification mark, meaning only coffee certified by the Coffee Industry Board of Jamaica can be labeled as such. It comes from a recognised growing region in the Blue Mountain region of Jamaica, and its cultivation is monitored by the Coffee Industry Board of Jamaica.
The Blue Mountains are generally located between Kingston to the south and Port Antonio to the north. Rising to 2,300 metres (7,500 ft), they are some of the highest mountains in the Caribbean. The climate of the region is cool and misty with high rainfall. The soil is rich, with excellent drainage. This combination of climate and soil is considered ideal for coffee.

The Coffee Industry Regulation Act

The Coffee Industry Regulation Act specifies what coffee may use the Blue Mountain label. Additionally, it restricts the use of the Blue Mountain trademark to those authorized by the Coffee Industry Board. Broadly speaking, coffee harvested from the parishes of Saint Andrew, Saint Thomas, Portland and Saint Mary may be considered Blue Mountain coffee. The specific boundaries are defined as follows
Starting at Skibo and proceeding in an east-south-easterly direction to Swift River;
thence east-south-easterly to Chelsea;
thence east-south-easterly to Durham (Samba Hill);
thence south-easterly to Belleview;
thence south-easterly along the western slope of the John Crow Mountain to Cedar Grove;
thence westerly to Font Hill;
thence north-westerly to Ramble;
thence westerly to Good Hope;
thence north-westerly to Dallas;
thence north-westerly to Industry Village;
thence north-westerly to Maryland;
thence north-westerly to Golden Spring;
thence northerly to Brandon Hill;
thence north-easterly to Tranquility;
thence east-north-easterly to Skibo.
Traditionally, only coffee grown at elevations between 3,000 and 5,500 feet (1,700 m) could be called Jamaica Blue Mountain. Coffee grown at elevations between 1,500 and 3,000 feet (910 m) is called Jamaica High Mountain, and coffee grown below 1,500-foot (460 m) elevation is called Jamaica Supreme or Jamaica Low Mountain. (All land in Jamaica above 5,500 feet (1,700 m) is a forest preserve, so no coffee is grown there.)

Classifications of Blue Mountain Coffee


  • Blue Mountain No. 1 - 96% of beans must have a screen size of 17/20. No more than 2% of the beans may have significant defects.
  • Blue Mountain No. 2 - 96% of beans must have a screen size of 16/17. No more than 2% of the beans may have significant defects.
  • Blue Mountain No. 3 - 96% of beans must have a screen size of 15/16. No more than 2% of the beans may have significant defects.
  • Blue Mountain Peaberry - 96% of beans must be peaberry. No more than 2% of the beans may have significant defects.
Blue Mountain Triage - Contains bean sizes from all previous classifications. No more than 4% of the beans may have significant defects.


Arabica and Robusta Coffee Plant

Coffee Plant Overview

The coffee plant is a woody perennial evergreen dicotyledon that belongs to the Rubiaceae family. Because it grows to a relatively large height, it is more accurately described as a coffee tree. It has a main vertical trunk (orthotropic) and primary, secondary, and tertiary horizontal branches (plagiotropic). 

The Difference Between Arabica and Robusta Coffee Beans

While there are several different coffee species, two main species of coffee are cultivated today.  Coffea arabica, known as Arabica coffee, accounts for 75-80 percent of the world's production.  Coffea canephora, known as Robusta coffee, accounts for about 20 percent and differs from the Arabica coffees in terms of taste. While Robusta coffee beans are more robust than the Arabica plants, but produces an inferior tasting beverage with a higher caffeine content.  Both the Robusta and Arabica coffee plant can grow to heights of 10 meters if not pruned, but producing countries will maintain the coffee plant at a height reasonable for easy harvesting.

Coffee Plant Growth and Development

Three to four years after the coffee is planted, sweetly smelling flowers grow in clusters in the axils of the coffee leaves.  Fruit is produced only in the new tissue.  The Coffea Arabica coffee plant is self-pollinating, whereas the Robusta coffee plant depends on cross pollination.  About 6-8 weeks after each coffee flower is fertilized, cell division occurs and the coffee fruit remains as a pin head for a period that is dependent upon the climate.  The ovaries will then develop into drupes in a rapid growth period that takes about 15 weeks after flowering.  During this time the integument takes on the shape of the final coffee bean.  After the rapid growth period the integument and parchment are fully grown and will not increase in size.  The endosperm remains small until about 12 weeks after flowering.  At this time it will suppress, consume, and replace the integument.  The remnants of the integument are what make up the silverskin.  The endosperm will have completely filled the cavity made by the integument nineteen weeks after flowing.  The endosperm is now white and moist, but will gain dry matter during the next several months.  During this time the endosperm attracts more than seventy percent of the total photsynthesates produced by the tree.  The mesocarps will expand to form the sweet pulp that surrounds the coffee bean.  The coffee cherry will change color from green to red about thirty to thirty-five weeks after flowing. 
Coffee Plant Root System
The roots of the coffee tree can extend 20-25 km in total length  and the absorbing surface of a tree ranges from 400 to 500 m2 .  There are main vertical roots, tap roots, and lateral roots which grow parallel to the ground.  The tap roots extend no further than 30-45 cm below the soil surface.  Four to eight axial roots may be encountered which often originate horizontally but point downward.  The lateral roots can extend 2 m from the trunk.  About 80-90% of the feeder root is in the first 20 cm of soil and is 60-90 cm away from the trunk of the coffee tree (Mavolta, 195-196).  However, Nutman states that the greatest root concentration is in the 30 to 60 cm depth.  The roots systems are heavily affected by the type of soil and the mineral content of the soil.  To be thick and strong, the coffee roots need an extensive supply of nitrogen, calcium and magnesium. During planting the main vertical roots are often clipped to promote growth of the the horizontal roots, which then have better access to water and added nutrients in the top soil.
Coffee Leaves
The elliptical leaves of the coffee tree are shiny, dark green, and waxy.  The coffee bean leaf area index is between 7 and 8 for a high-yielding coffee .  The coffee plant has become a major source of oxygen in much of the world.  Each hectare of coffee produces 86 lbs of oxygen per day, which is about half the production of the same area in a rain forest (source: Anacafe).